美国临床药学教育与实践
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篇名: 美国临床药学教育与实践
TITLE:
摘要: 目的:介绍美国临床药学教育的概况,探讨其发展方向。方法:总结近50年美国临床药学的发展史,介绍其教学和培训模式、临床药师工作内容及相关认证情况。结果与结论:美国的药学教育和临床实践经历了重大的变化与发展。2000年开始设立的临床药学博士学位项目是变革核心,其是目前美国药学院校提供的唯一药学学位。坚实的临床教育是培养临床药学从业者的基础,这些课程主要由资深的临床药学博士授课。患者监护是临床药学博士生教育的中心,而以技能展现所学知识的课堂活动正逐步取代传统的授课式教学模式。药学院校需要证明其学生掌握了评审标准中所要求的技能。为了将学生培养为专业的临床药师,在完成临床药学博士项目后,一般需要1~2年的住院药师培训。大多数临床药师还需要通过一项临床委员会考试以取得临床药学执业执照。此外,临床药师也可成为药学院校的临床教师。中国临床药师的发展,可以此为借鉴,通过院校和医疗机构的协同努力,以加强药师的临床培训。
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To introduce the general situation of clinical pharmacy education in the United States, and to discuss the development and practice direction. METHODS: The clinical pharmacy history were summarized over 50 years, and teaching method, training, content and certification were introduced. RESULTS&CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy education and clinical practice underwent significant change and advancement. Pharm.D. program started in 2000 is the core of pharmacy education reform and only pharmacy degree provided by colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States. The training and development of the clinical pharmacy practioner starts with a strong foundation of clinical education, predominantly delivered by advanced trained Pharm.D.’s in academia and practice. Education of the Pharm.D. student is centered on patient care, but is gradually shifting away from the traditional didactic lecture to skill based classroom activities designed to demonstrate of knowledge. Colleges and schools of pharmacy must be able to provide evidence that students have mastered the skills that are outlined in the accreditation standards. Following the Pharm.D. program, the next step in the development of the clinical pharmacist expertise generally requires one or two years of residency. Most of these clinical pharmacists will also pass a clinical board exam to attain a license to practice pharmacy. These same individuals also serve as clinical faculty in pharmacy colleges and schools. In china, development of the clinical pharmacist practioner can refer to the experience of the United states, and a cooperative but concerted effort between colleges and schools of pharmacy and medical centers strengthen clinical training of pharmacists.
期刊: 2016年第27卷第2期
作者: Keith M. Olsen,Sylvia A. Dang,Olivia V. Nguyen,Kimberly K. Scarsi,张伶俐,曾力楠,归舸
AUTHORS: Keith M. Olsen,Sylvia A. Dang,Olivia V. Nguyen,Kimberly K. Scarsi,ZHANG Lingli,ZENG Linan,GUI Ge
关键字: 临床药学;临床药学博士学位;患者监护;教育;培训;药学;药师
KEYWORDS: Clinical pharmay; Pharm.D; Patient Care; Education; Training; Pharmacy; Pharmacist
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