藏药“日官”的名称考证
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篇名: 藏药“日官”的名称考证
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摘要: 目的:针对藏药“日官”一药多名现象,对其正名、异名及汉译名称进行考证,确定适于标准化推广的规范名称。方法:对公元7至21世纪具代表性的藏医药经典著作进行研究,整理“日官”在各著作中的名称及其出现频率、命名依据和演替等,筛选便于理解和推广应用的“日官”的藏、汉文标准名称。结果:通过对17部具有代表性的藏药经典著作和6部汉文版藏药著作考证发现,藏药“日官”共有19个藏文名称,其中记载频次最高的名称是“孜玛冈久”,先后被11部著作记载;其次是“日官”和“普荣冈”,分别被8部著作记载;再者是“日官孜玛”,被7部著作记载;命名依据可归纳为四类,即单纯命名(如“日官”)、强调形态特征(如“孜玛冈久”)、强调药性(如“达伟透”)、单纯命名+强调形态特征(如“日官孜玛”)。“孜玛冈久”“日官”和“日官孜玛”等3个名称分别在公元7至8世纪、8至19世纪和19至21世纪时期作为正名使用,其中“日官孜玛”最早作为正名记载于象征我国新时代藏医药发展里程碑式权威官方著作《中国医学百科全书藏医分卷》中。结论:根据命名依据和当前应用情况,建议将“日官孜玛”作为藏药“日官”的藏、汉文标准名称加以推广和规范应用。
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To make a textual research on the normal name, synonym and Chinese translation name aiming at the phenomenon of more than one name of Tibetan medicine “Riguan”, and to determine the standard name suitable for standardization and popularization. METHODS: The representative classical Tibetan medicine books from the 7th to the 21st century were studied. The names of “Riguan” in various books and their occurrence frequency, naming basis and succession were sorted out, and the standard names of “Riguan” in Tibetan and Chinese were screened for easy understanding and popularization. RESULTS: According to the 17 representative Tibetan medicine classics books and 6 Chinese version Tibetan medicine books, “Riguan” had 19 Tibetan names. Among them, the most frequently recorded name was “Zimagangjiu”, which had been recorded in 11 books. Secondly, “Riguan” and “Puronggang” were recorded in 8 books respectively, and “Riguanzima” was recorded in 7 books. Naming basis could be summarized into four categories, i.e. simple naming (such as “Riguan”), emphasizing morphological characteristics (such as “Zimagangjiu”), emphasizing medicinal properties (such as “Daweitou”), simple naming+emphasizing morphological characteristics (such as “Riguanzima”). “Zimagangjiu” “Riguan” and “Riguanzima” were used as normal names in the 7th to 8th century, 8th to 19th century and 19th to 21st century respectively. Among them, “Riguanzima” was first recorded in the official book Tibetan Medicine Subvolume of Chinese Medical Encyclopedia as a formal name, which symbolized the milestone of the development of Tibetan medicine in the new era of our country. CONCLUSIONS: According to the naming basis and current application situation, it is suggested that “Riguanzima” can be used as the Tibetan and Chinese standard name of Tibetan medicine “Riguan” to promote and standardize its application.
期刊: 2019年第30卷第15期
作者: 郭肖,陈娟,仁青多杰,李先加,李啟恩
AUTHORS: GUO Xiao,CHEN Juan,Renqingduojie,LI Xianjia,LI Qien
关键字: 藏药;日官;标准名称;日官孜玛;考证
KEYWORDS: Tibetan medicine; Riguan; Standard name; Riguanzima; Textual research
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