英国非医疗处方权管理及对我国的启示
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篇名: 英国非医疗处方权管理及对我国的启示
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摘要: 目的:系统了解英国非医疗处方权的管理模式,为我国非医疗处方权的建立和实施提供启示。方法:通过查阅国内外文献,对英国非医疗处方权的发展历程、类型、核心要素、实施现状及效果进行系统介绍,并对我国非医疗处方权模式的发展提出建议。结果与结论:英国于1994年开始实行非医疗处方权,经过多年的实践与一系列立法及修订,到2012年,独立处方权者(包括护士和药师)拥有为患者开具任何药品的法定权利。英国的非医疗处方权分为主要存在于社区药房中、限于特定疾病种类的独立处方权(包括护士独立处方权、药师独立处方权)和存在于医院或诊所、需要和医生等签订合作协议的补充处方权。其管理机构主要由一个国家行政部门(英国卫生部)和三个专业协会(英国护理和助产理事会、英国皇家药物协会、北爱尔兰制药学会)组成,其对处方权者的资质和相应责任有着详细、严格的规定。英国政府为非医疗处方权模式的发展提供了法律保障,非医疗处方权者数量也在不断增加,这一模式的实施能够增加患者获得医疗服务的机会。借鉴英国非医疗处方权管理的发展经验,我国需通过完善立法、为非医疗处方权的实施提供法律保障,扩大我国护士和药师的实践范围,建立健全非医疗处方权专业人才培养计划等措施,以促进我国非医疗处方权模式的发展。
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To systematically investigate the management mode of non-medical prescribing in Britain and its enlightenment to the establishment and implementation of non-medical prescribing in China. METHODS: By retrieving domestic and foreign literatures, non-medical prescribing in Britain was introduced systematically in terms of development history, types, core elements, implementation status and effect; the suggestions were put forward for the development of non-medical prescribing in China. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Britain implemented non-medical prescribing since 1994. After years of practice and a series of legislation and revision, independent prescribers (including nurses and pharmacists) have owned the statutory right to prescribe any medicine for patients by 2012. In Britain, non-medical prescribing is divided into independent prescribing which mainly exists in community pharmacies and is limited to specific diseases, supplementary prescribing which exists in hospitals or clinic and needs to be signed with doctors. The management institutions are mainly composed of one state administrative department (British Department of Health) and three professional associations (British Nursing and Midwifery Council, The Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, The Pharmaceutical Society of Northern Ireland). There are detailed and strict stipulations on the qualification and corresponding responsibilities of the prescribing authority. The British government has provided legal protection for the development of the non-medical prescribing model, and the number of non-medical prescribers is increasing. The implementation of this model has increased the patients’ access to medical services. Drawing lessons from the development of non-medical prescribing management in Britain, our country needs to improve legislation, provide legislative protection for the implementation of non-medical prescribing, expand the scope of practice of nurses and pharmacists, establish and improve the training program of non-medical prescribing professionals to promote the development of non-medical prescribing model in China.
期刊: 2018年第29卷第20期
作者: 刘秋风,沈夕坤,田侃,喻小勇,刘雪竹
AUTHORS: LIU Qiufeng,SHEN Xikun,TIAN Kan,YU Xiaoyong,LIU Xuezhu
关键字: 非医疗处方权;英国;护士;药师;启示
KEYWORDS: Non-medical prescribing; Britain; Nurse; Pharmacist; Enlightenment
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