麻醉药品和精神药品管制研究Ⅱ——美国管制物质的管制历程与现状
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篇名: 麻醉药品和精神药品管制研究Ⅱ——美国管制物质的管制历程与现状
TITLE:
摘要: 目的:研究美国管制物质的管制历程及现状,为我国麻醉药品和精神药品管制提供依据。方法:通过检索收集国内外数据库、新闻报道、国际网站中有关管制物质的文献、报道与政策等,对美国管制物质的管制历程及现状进行整理研究。结果与结论:美国对管制物质的管制始于1914年《哈里森法》,是国际上在《国际鸦片公约》生效后率先通过的以税法形式立法用来管制麻醉药品成瘾问题的国家。此后,美国逐步扩大管制范围,通过《麻醉药品进出口法案》《海洛因法》《大麻税法》将大麻、海洛因和精神药品纳入管制,并通过尼克松“毒品战争”计划,修订形成了综合性法案《管制物质法案》,最终建立了隶属于司法部的管制物质强制管理局这一综合执法机构。
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To study the development and status quo of controlled substances control in the United States, and to provide evidence for narcotics and psychotropic substances (NPS) control in China. METHODS: The development and status quo of controlled substances control by the United States were summarized and studies through retrieving and collecting literatures, reports and policies about NPS from domestic and foreign databases, news reports and international website. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The United States’ control for controlled substances dated back to Harrison Narcotics Tax Act in 1914, and the United States is the first nation to control narcotics addiction through the form of tax law after International Opium Convention is executed. Thereafter, the United States gradually extend the range by including cannabis, heroin and psychotropic substances into control range of Narcotics Drugs Import and Export Act, Heroin Act, Marijuana Tax Act, revising and developing comprehensive act Controlled Substances Act, and establishing comprehensive law enforcement agency Controlled Substances Enforcement Administration affiliated to Ministry of Justice by Nixon’s “War on Drugs” plan.
期刊: 2017年28卷第1期
作者: 邹武捷,满春霞,杨淑苹,管晓东,史录文
AUTHORS: ZOU Wujie,MAN Chunxia,YANG Shuping,GUAN Xiaodong,SHI Luwen
关键字: 美国;管制物质;税法;毒品战争;历程;现状
KEYWORDS: United States; Controlled substances; Tax law; War on drugs; Development; Status quo
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